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      胎儿缺氧

      【导读】胎儿在宫内有缺氧征象,危及胎儿健康和生命,称为胎儿窘迫。胎儿窘迫是一种综合症状,是当前剖宫产的主要适应证之一。胎儿窘迫主要发生在临产过程,也可发生在妊娠后期。发生在临产过程者,可以是发生在妊娠后期的延续和加重。胎儿窘迫多见于产前期,主要有胎盘功能不全的表现。病理生理高危妊娠,如妊娠期高血压疾病、慢性高血压、肾炎、糖尿病、心脏病、哮喘、重度贫血、过期妊娠等,或由于血管病变使子宫血液减少,或由于胎盘的退行变,或由于血氧浓度过低,使胎儿得不到足够的供氧,引起胎儿生长迟缓、红细胞增多症、胎动减少,甚至严重的胎儿窘迫,引起胎儿死亡。

      胎儿在宫内有缺氧征象危及胎儿健康和生命者,称为胎儿窘迫。胎儿窘迫是一种综合症状,是当前剖宫产的主要适应征之一。胎儿窘迫主要发生在临产过程,也可发生在妊娠后期。发生在临产过程者,可以是发生在妊娠后期的延续和加重。

      胎儿宫内窘迫它不仅是新生儿窒息,甚至是死亡的常见原因,而且也能引起新生儿神经系统的病变及以后智力发育异常。因此,积极诊治、处理、护理胎儿宫内窘迫对减少围生儿死亡、改善预后、优生优育具有重要意义。

      由于担心缺氧会影响孩子的智力,甚至威胁生命,孕妇可能会出现激动、烦躁、紧张、恐惧情况,护士应耐心做其思想工作,帮助孕妇分析目前现实情况,另外医务人员要保持镇静,技术娴熟,使孕妇产生信赖感,积极配合治疗和护理。

      产前定期检查非常重要,可及时发现母亲或胎儿异常情况的出现,如妊娠期高血压疾病、慢性肾炎、过期妊娠、胎盘老化、贫血、胎儿发育迟缓、前置胎盘、合并心脏病等,从而判断出对胎儿的危害程度,制定相应的治疗方案而预防或治疗之。孕期注意自我保健,增加营养,劳逸结合,避免不良生活习惯,预防胎盘早剥。

      胎儿宫内窘迫是一种综合症,是剖腹产的适应症之一。其发生原因常见有母体血液含氧量不足、母胎间血氧运输及交换障碍、胎儿自身因素异常三个方面。那么胎儿宫内窘迫有哪些临床表现呢?专家指出,胎儿宫内窘迫的临床表现主要有以下几个方面:

      1、胎心率异常:正常胎心率为120-160次/min。如果监测胎儿胎心率>160次/min,或胎心率<120次/min,为胎儿宫内缺氧的表现;胎心率<100次/min,提示胎儿危险。

      2、胎动变化:正常情况下,胎动次数为3-5次/h或30次/12h。如果胎动次数小于或等于20次/12h,则提示胎儿可能缺氧;如果小于或等于10次/12h,或低于平时规律胎动数的50%,则提示胎儿明显缺氧。急性缺氧时,常表现为胎动异常频繁继而减弱及减少次数,进而消失。慢性缺氧主要表现是胎动减少进而消失,所以胎动过频或胎动减少均为胎儿缺氧的征象。

      3、羊水胎粪污染:胎儿缺氧会引起迷走神经兴奋,胃肠蠕动亢进,肛门括约肌松弛,继而使胎粪排入羊水中污染羊水。临床上常将受污染的羊水分为三度:羊水i度:呈浅绿色,常见于胎儿慢性缺氧。羊水ii度:呈黄绿色,提示胎儿急性缺氧。羊水iii度:棕黄色、混浊,提示胎儿缺氧严重。对羊水的观察,破膜后可直接观察羊水性状,未破膜可经羊膜镜窥视。

      4、其他表现:胎儿有慢性缺氧时,随着时间的延长缺氧程度会逐渐加重,引起胎儿宫内发育迟缓、死胎等。

      胎儿窘迫主要发生在临产过程,也可发生在妊娠后期。发生在临产过程者,可以是发生在妊娠后期的延续和加重。胎儿窘迫多见于产前期,主要有胎盘功能不全的表现。引起胎儿窘迫的原因主要有以下三个方面:

      1、母体因素

      母体血液含氧量不足是重要原因,轻度缺氧时母体多无明显症状,但对胎儿则会有影响。导致胎儿缺氧的母体因素有:

      (1)微小动脉供血不足如高血压、慢性肾炎和妊娠期高血压疾病等。

      (2)红细胞携氧量不足如重度贫血、心脏病心力衰竭和肺心病等。

      (3)急性失血如产前出血性疾病和创伤等。

      (4)子宫胎盘血运受阻急产或子宫不协调性收缩等;催产素使用不当,引起过强宫缩;产程延长,特别是第二产程延长;子宫过度膨胀,如羊水过多和多胎妊娠;胎膜早破,脐带可能受压等。

      2、胎儿因素

      (1)胎儿心血管系统功能障碍,如严重的先天性心血管疾病的颅内出血等。

      (2)胎儿畸形。

      3、脐带、胎盘因素

      脐带和胎盘是母体与胎儿间氧及营养物质的输送传递通道,其功能障碍必然影响胎儿不能获得所需氧及营养物质。

      (1)脐带血运受阻。

      (2)胎盘功能低下如过期妊娠、胎盘发育障碍(过小或过大)、胎盘形状异常(膜状胎盘、轮廓胎盘等)和胎盘感染等。

      孕妇缺氧在医学上又称胎儿宫内窘迫,造成胎儿缺氧的原因很多,某些孕妇患有心、肺、肾等慢性疾病,由于孕妇自身缺血缺氧,导致胎儿缺血缺氧,影响胎儿发育?;褂幸恢忠彩亲钇毡榈脑懈救毖跷侍?,主要是由于胎盆功能不良,尤其是妊娠晚期,胎盆功能不好,营养物和氧不能渗透到胎儿体内,造成胎儿营养不良、缺血、缺氧。

      胎儿宫内缺氧引起的脑损伤并非一发生缺氧就立即发生,而是与缺氧时间长短及程度轻重密切相关。缺氧时间长、程度重,超出了胎儿对缺氧的耐受能力时,才会发生脑组织的缺氧性损害。阴道助产可在极短时间内娩出胎儿,能最大限度地减少胎儿的缺氧时间,所以,有助于预防新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病的发生。对不具备阴道助产者,则应采取剖宫产术。

      所以,为了避免由于胎儿缺氧引起的严重后果,首要的是认真参加产检,以便能及时发现和治疗各种妊娠并发症、合并症等高危因素,使之避免或减少胎儿宫内缺氧及难产的发生。其次,医务人员须认真仔细观察产程,及时发现和妥善处理胎儿宫内缺氧及难产,以减轻或避免缺氧对脑组织的损害。第三,医生应正确掌握阴道助产与剖宫产术的指征,杜绝或减少困难的阴道助产术的发生。第四,及时作好新生儿抢救的准备,与儿科医生共同处理窒息的新生儿。

      在孕妇分娩前,由于母亲因素或脐带绕颈等因素会引起胎儿宫内窘迫。胎儿缺氧不仅是新生儿窒息,甚至是死亡的常见原因,而且也能引起新生儿神经系统的病变及以后智力发育异常。下面介绍几种能够化解胎儿缺氧的方法。

      1、清理呼吸道

      胎儿头娩出后,立即用挤压法清除鼻咽部粘液及羊水,断脐后将胎儿仰卧放于抢救台上,继续用吸痰管吸出呼吸道的羊水和粘液,若为重度窒息或羊水中混有胎便、粘稠者,可急行气管插管,直视下清理呼吸道。

      2、建立呼吸

      在呼吸道通畅的基础上进行人工呼吸,同时吸入氧气。在紧急情况下,可采用口对口人工呼吸。重度窒息者,经气管内插管吸净羊水、粘液后,加压给氧。

      3、 恢复循环

      新生儿若娩出后无心跳或心跳微弱,应立即行胸外心脏按压,按压胸骨中部,90次/分,每按压3次,停顿一次,让新生儿通气1次,按压时动作轻柔,防止胎儿肋骨骨折。

      4、缓解酸中毒

      新生儿有严重代谢性酸中毒的情况下,在气管插管的同时,行脐静脉注射,用5%碳酸氢钠10毫升经脐静脉缓缓注入,可以缓解胎儿代谢性酸中毒,促使胎儿呼吸恢复,必要时可用纳洛酮0.1毫克/公斤缓缓注入。

      5、 保温

      胎儿娩出后,迅速擦干胎儿身上的羊水,减少体表散热,注意保温,室温控制在30~32℃。

      胎儿缺氧对宝宝智力和身体健康都有很大的影响,甚至对胎儿生命安全也有影响。所以准妈妈们要积极了解胎儿缺氧的表现以及胎儿缺氧怎么办等相关知识,就可以有效预防胎儿缺氧,避免一些危险。下面介绍一些预防胎儿缺氧的方法。

      1、当孕妈妈确诊为宫内发育迟缓后,首先应寻找致病原因,通过B超等方法排除胎儿畸形。

      2、孕妈妈应针对病因进行治疗,并禁烟、戒酒;注意卧床休息,最好采取左侧卧位,并可配合舒喘灵等药物的应用,使宫体松弛,血管扩张,以利于改善胎盘血液供应。

      3、补充营养,除食疗外,还可输注葡萄糖溶液及氨基酸等,以促进胎儿发育;每天给予间断吸氧,预防或缓解胎儿宫内缺氧。

      4、加强胎儿监护十分重要,因为患儿在宫内随时有发生宫内缺氧、甚至死亡的可能,而定期进行胎心电子监护、B超检查及胎儿胎盘功能检测等,有助于及时发现胎儿宫内缺氧,适时分娩。妊娠36周左右是宫内发育迟缓儿胎死宫内的好发时期,更应加强监护。

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